Eisenach, Germany

City in Erfurt district, 31 mi W of Erfurt. Founded in 1150 by the land graves of Thuringia, it was conquered by the Saxon house of Wettin in 1264 and was the seat of a separate Saxon duchy at various times from 1596 to 1741, when it fell to Saxe-Weimar.Luther studied here from 1498 to 1501 and in1521 completed his vernacular translation of the Bible in the ancient Wartburg Castle nearby. Johann Sebastian Bach was born here in 1685. The Social Democratic Workingmen's Party was founded at the Congress of Eisenach in 1869.